Ahmed, N.
Hossain, S.
Moniruzzaman, M.



Year of Publication:


This study aims to appraise the spatial variations and pathways of groundwater contaminations and associated health risks in the Surma basin, Bangladesh using geostatistics, Fuzzy GIS technique and health risk modelbased on ninety groundwater samples. The results show that the mean concentrations of As, Fe, Mn and NO3 are below the Bangladesh water quality standard, whereas As, Fe and Mn concentrations exceed World Health Organization guideline values in several sampling sites. The compositional study identifies weathering of source rocks, reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn-oxyhydroxide minerals and various anthropogenic inputs as the key sources of groundwater contamination. The kriged maps show the elevated risks of Fe, Mn and NO3 concentrations from the south to northern parts and As concentration from the north to southwestern parts of the Surma basin. The results of fuzzy GIS maps confirm the outcomes of kriged maps. Cross validation results show better performance of indicator kriging over probability kriging. The results also show a spatial heterogeneity with As, Fe, Mn and NO3 concentrations, indicating the low to medium risk categories. A health risk assessment is performed using hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI). The HQ values imply that the risk of contamination through oral ingestion pathway is medium to high levels for both adults and children as the trace elements show HQ values more than one. It is found that drinking water of several upazilas exhibits high contamination and that children are more susceptible to the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks than adults in the study area.

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