Islam, M. Ara, M. Azad, A. Hassan, N. Lenz, O. Rahman, M.
Scientific Research Publishing
Year of Publication:
Surface water has become one of the most vulnerable resources on the earth due to deterioration of its quality from diverse sources of pollution. Under-standing of the spatiotemporal distribution of pollutants and identification of the sources in the river systems is a prerequisite for the protection and sus-tainable utilization of the water resources. Multivariate statistical techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Factor Analysis (FA) were applied in this study to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of water quality and appoint the major factors of pollution in the Shailmari River sys-tem. Water quality data for 14 physicochemical parameters from 11 monitor-ing sites over the year of 2014 in three sampling seasons were collected and analyzed for this study. Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant (p < 0.01) temporal and spatial variations in all of the water quality parameters of the river water. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed extracting the con-tributing parameters affecting the seasonal water quality in the river system. Scatter plots of the PCs showed the tidal and spatial variation within river system and identified parameters controlling the behavior in each case. Factor analysis (FA) further reduced the data and extracted factors which are signifi-cantly responsible for water quality variation in the river. The results indicate that the parameters controlling the water quality in different seasons are re-lated with salinity, anthropogenic pollution (sewage disposal, effluents) and agricultural
runoff in pre-monsoon; precipitation induced surface runoff in monsoon; and erosion, oxidation or organic pollution (point and non-point sources) in post-monsoon. Therefore, the study reveals the applicability and usefulness of the multivariate statistical
methods in assessing water quality of river by identifying the potential environmental factors controlling the water quality in different seasons which might help to better understand, monitor and manage the quality of the water resources.
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