Author/s:

Ahmad, I.
Ahsan, G.
Alam, S.
Fatema, K.
Islam, M.
Jimmy, A.
Khan, N.

Publisher:

ResearchGate

Year of Publication:

2019

Abstract

Over the last few decades Bangladesh has already experienced the emergence of recurrent floods, severe cyclones, water logging, salinity intrusions, and riverbank erosion as the climatic push factors that have forced highly exposed and vulnerable coastal communities to migrate especially from the southwestern zone. However, only few ground level efforts have been made so far to scientifically explore and synthesize the general socio-demographic drivers, especially in terms of slow-onset disasters. So, this paper aims to explore various socio-demographic factors that influence migration decision making, and coherent dynamics of migration decision making in the context of both observed and anticipatory risk to the impacts of climate variability. The required primary data was collected through administering semi-structured questionnaire among 120 randomly selected households of Mollarhat and Monglaupazilas of Bagerhat district, from the southwest coastal zone of Bangladesh due to its immense vulnerability to cyclone and salinity intrusion. The findings of the study showed that majority of the respondents are well concerned about climate change and taking various measures to overcome its impacts. Perceived to be having an increasing trend, the study found a significant relationship between the migration trend in the localities and hazard years (e.g. cyclones, low rainfall etc.) and seasons (e.g. excessive rainfall). Although the primary motivation is better income for migrants or intended migrants, in effect, it acted as an effective form of adaptation during times of climatic stress. Seasonal migration was found to be a common trend, where the remittance sent by the migrants played roles as a means of income security when regular employment in their local area was not available due to various climatic stresses. Although most of the seasonal migration occurred to nearby regional destinations, a considerable portion of it was also found to be occurring at distant locations across the country. So, a major part of the migration was found to have occurred during the month of April to July and November to urban, sub-urban and even other villages for job. The study also identified that migration decision making due to climatic and non-climatic factors can often vary in terms of age, sex, occupational, educational, income and various vulnerability features.

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