Chiba, Y.
Prabhakar, S.
Shaw, R.


Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Year of Publication:



This paper aims to assess climate change related non-economic loss and damage (NELD) through case studies of Bangladesh and Japan, evaluate how NELD are addressed in these countries and provide the ways forward for further improvement.


This paper reviewed the literature to examine NELD and looked into currently available methodologies and their limitations. It reviewed governmental disaster reports and plans and interviewed with communities to understand NELD in each country’s context.


This paper indicates NELD are not sufficiently reported in the study countries. Underestimation of NELD may lead to limited outcomes in DRR and CCA. NELD should be measured and integrated into decision-making, through capacity-building from local to national level.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is based on the literature review and stakeholder consultations in the study countries. The results are specific to these countries. Readers may find them applicable to other country situations.

Practical implications

NELD-related information is directly relevant for preparing countries to achieve their Sustainable Development, CCA and DRR objectives as suggested by the recent international frameworks such as SDGs, Paris Agreement and Sendai Framework for DRR.


Addressing NELD is a recent topic under UNFCCC, and nothing much has been done on how countries can address NELD in their developmental, CCA and DRR approaches. This paper identifies the importance of integrating NELD into decision-making and the ways forward to researchers, governments and policymakers for addressing NELD.

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