Author/s:

Pavel, M.

Publisher:

Florida International University

Year of Publication:

2019

Abstract

Climate change and extreme weather events are affecting the environment, and people’s livelihood in both developing and developed countries. Agriculture, forestry, fishing, livestock, water resources, human health, terrestrial ecosystems, biodiversity, and coastal zones are among the major sectors impacted by these shocks. The challenge of adaptation is particularly acute in the developing countries, as poverty and resource constraints limit their capacity to act. Bangladesh fits in this category, and thus I use data from Bangladesh to analyze the adaptation process in the first and second chapter of my dissertation.

In the first chapter, I investigate whether transient shocks (flood, cyclone) or permanent shocks (e.g., river erosion that leads to permanent loss of lands) have more influence on interregional migration. Findings of the study suggest that the households prefer to move to the nearest city when the environmental shock is temporary, whereas they tend to relocate over a greater distance when the environmental shock is more permanent in nature.

In the second chapter, I investigate the feasibility of a set of adaptation measures to cope with hydro-climatic shocks (e.g. floods, drought, cyclones, tidal waves) and epidemic shocks (emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases on livestock and poultry) in the agricultural sector in Bangladesh. Findings suggest that a decrease in agricultural income due to climatic and/or epidemic shocks is likely to induce households to adapt more.

Developed countries are also vulnerable to extreme weather events and climatic shocks. In 2017, United States was hit by three consecutive hurricanes: Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Given the rising exposure and the increasing need to manage coastal vulnerability, the third essay focusses on understanding household preferences for financing adaptation activities in the U. S. and analyzes which mechanism, i.e., state or federal adaptation fund approach, is better suited to managing exposure to such types of natural disaster in the future.

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